India’s stray dog problem is a complex issue with social, cultural, economic, and public health dimensions. India is estimated to have tens of millions of stray dogs roaming its streets, alleys, and public spaces. The stray dog problem has significant and wide-ranging impacts on communities across the country which give rise to issues of dog-human conflict, dog-welfare and dog-human coexistence.   


Dogs have been a part of Indian society for centuries, serving various roles such as companionship, guardianship, and as working animals. Historically, many Indian cities and towns had populations of free-roaming dogs that were semi-owned or community-owned. During the colonial era, British authorities introduced policies aimed at controlling the stray dog population due to concerns over public health and safety. However, these measures often involved culling and were met with resistance from local communities.

After India gained independence in 1947, efforts to manage stray dog populations continued, with varying degrees of success across different regions. In recent decades, there has been a massive shift towards more humane methods of population control, primarily through sterilization drives and vaccination programs. Animal birth control (ABC) programs aim to sterilize stray dogs to prevent breeding, coupled with vaccination against diseases such as rabies.


Rapid urbanization in India has had a significant impact on the stray dog population, contributing to its growth in several ways. 

Urbanization also results in the loss of natural habitats and open spaces for animals, including dogs. Stray dogs may be confined to urban areas due to encroachment on their traditional habitats, leading to higher concentrations of stray dogs in cities and towns.

Furthermore, as rural areas underwent urbanization, people, along with their pets, often migrated to cities and towns in search of better opportunities. This resulted in displaced dogs thronging urban colonies. Some pets are also abandoned or left behind due to changes in living situations, contributing to the population of stray dogs in urban areas.


Garbage provides a readily available food source for stray dogs. In urban areas where waste management systems are inadequate or where garbage is improperly disposed of, stray dogs often scavenge through trash bins, landfills, and dumps in search of food scraps. This scavenging behavior sustains the stray dog population and can lead to increased concentrations of dogs in areas with high levels of waste.


In many parts of India, particularly in Hindu culture, dogs are revered as sacred animals. They are associated with deities like Bhairava, an aspect of Lord Shiva, and are believed to possess spiritual significance. As a result, there is a tradition of feeding and caring for stray dogs as a form of religious devotion and karma. In some communities, stray dogs are accepted as part of daily life. People may view them with tolerance and compassion, recognizing their presence as a natural aspect of urban and rural environments. However, not all attitudes towards stray dogs in India are positive. Some individuals may harbor fear or mistrust towards stray dogs.


Stray dogs often roam freely in urban and rural areas, making it difficult for healthcare providers to reach them. Dogs may be elusive or wary of human contact, especially if they have had negative experiences with humans or if they are not accustomed to being handled. Capturing and restraining stray dogs for healthcare interventions such as vaccination and sterilization can be challenging. Moreover, healthcare resources for stray dogs, including veterinary care, medications, and supplies, are often limited or insufficient. 

Since the stray dog population is large, with dogs constantly breeding and migrating within urban and rural areas; the high turnover rate makes it challenging to implement healthcare interventions. This is where spaying and neutering become effective methods to curb the growth of stray dog population, preventing the birth of countless puppies that may face lives of hardship on the streets and have very poor access to healthcare. 


Stray dogs reproduce at a rapid rate, leading to exponential population growth. The high population density of stray dogs results in increased competition for limited resources such as food, water, shelter and healthcare. Overpopulation contributes to the spread of diseases among stray dog populations. Crowded living conditions, poor hygiene, and limited access to veterinary care increase the risk of infectious diseases such as rabies, parvovirus, distemper, and mange.

Implementing population control measures for stray dogs requires significant resources, including funding, manpower, and infrastructure. Many municipalities and animal welfare organizations face constraints in terms of financial resources, trained personnel, and access to veterinary services and facilities.

Implementing large-scale spaying and neutering programs for stray dogs is crucial for controlling their population growth. These programs should target both male and female dogs to prevent reproduction and reduce the number of puppies born on the streets.


Several policies and regulations address the management and welfare of stray dogs.The ABC program is a government initiative aimed at controlling the population of stray dogs through sterilization and vaccination. The government has also launched various initiatives to control and prevent rabies.  

Many state governments and municipal corporations in India have enacted their own regulations and bylaws for the management of stray dogs within their jurisdictions. These regulations may include provisions for the registration, identification, and vaccination of pet dogs, as well as measures for controlling the stray dog population, such as licensing of animal shelters and implementation of sterilization programs. A bunch of dog centres have also been set up for sterilisation and rehabilitation of dogs. 


Non profit organizations play a very important role in implementation of government policies aimed towards the welfare of stray dogs. Multiple sterilization and vaccination drives are conducted with the help of NGOs and local communities across India each year. To help a dog and to reduce their numbers it is imperative that NGOs and local communities come together and achieve goals. Over a decade, Jaipur, with the help of sound government policies, NGO engagement and community involvement has successfully brought down the population of stray dogs and also dog bite incidents. Places like Pune also pioneer in dog rescue stories with many injured dogs being rescued and rehabilitated as a result.


India can also learn from the best practices in countries like Mexico, which has acquired rabies-free status; Netherlands, the first country to have eliminated population of stray dogs, the feat achieved through humane, sustainable and scientific methods such as proper implementation of mass sterilization programs and  waste-management techniques; and Bhutan where all free-roaming dogs have been sterilized through government initiatives.


Overpopulated stray dog populations can pose risks to public safety, particularly in urban areas. Transmission of diseases such as rabies present significant hazards to human health. Spaying and neutering, when combined with rabies vaccination programs, can help control the spread of rabies by reducing the population of susceptible animals and increasing vaccination coverage.


Overall, attitudes towards stray dogs in India are diverse and complex, reflecting a range of cultural, social, and practical considerations. While some people view stray dogs with reverence and compassion, others may see them as nuisances or threats. 

Addressing the root causes for the stray dog problems requires a multi-faceted approach that involves collaboration among government agencies, non-governmental organizations, veterinarians, community members, and other stakeholders. By working together to overcome these obstacles, it is possible to improve the healthcare and well-being of stray dogs and promote harmonious coexistence between humans and animals.